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Brain Case Studies Homework Assignment

Our class motto:  "In case of bad weather, just keep reading!"


While we will do some related activities during class in the upcoming weeks, our next unit will be largely independent. Your assignment until the end of the first full week of February is to read Chapters 9 & 10 and to complete the multiple choice questions in the accompanying packet (download here and here.)  The free response questions are provided to guide your reading. While you ARE required to turn in the multiple choice questions, and I strongly suggest you read and feel comfortable answering the free response questions, you are NOT required to turn in the free response questions to me. On the day the MC questions are due (Thurs/Fri, Feb 8/9), you will also have a short, objective-format test in class on the material.  The test will not ask the exact same questions, but it will cover the same material so if you have completed the whole packet, you have studied for the test!

There will not be any formal reading checks until the end of the unit, but I have suggested a reading schedule below. There are quite a few pages in these two chapters, so -- trust me -- you will really want to pace yourself through the readings.  Don't wait until the day before the whole assignment is due to read nearly 70 pages!

Suggested readings
For Tues/Wed, Jan 23/24: pages 405 - 415
For Thurs/Fri, Jan 25/26: pages 415 - 424
For Mon, Jan 29: pages 424 - 434
​For Tues/Wed, Jan 30/31: 434 - 439, 368 - 373
For Thurs/Fri, Feb 1/2: pages 373 - 382 
For Mon, Feb 5: pages 382 - 391

For Tues/Wed, Feb 6/7: pages 391 - 401
For Thurs/Fri, Feb 8/9: FINISH PACKET to turn in

In class THURSDAY/FRIDAY, Feb 8/9: MC questions on Chp 9/10 DUEObjective test (MC, fill in blank) on Chp 9/10 in class. Study the VOCAB and the notes sheet from the two videos we watched in class!  The videos can be found on the Links page.  They are episodes 6 and 11 of the Annenberg series, in case you missed them or want to see parts of them again.

NOTE:  There will be a project associated with the Personality unit.  The details and deadlines will be updated once we see how the weather situation is working out this winter.

Due Mon/Tues, Feb 12/13: Read pgs 553 - 560
Due Wed, Feb 14 (all 8 classes meet): Read pgs 561 - 564 + Handout (Freud)
Due Thurs/Fri, Feb 15/16: Turn in inkblots and norming sheets + Read pgs 567 - 572 + Handout (Jung)

Due Mon, Feb 19: Statistics Problem Set DUE and Read pgs 202 - 205 + Handout (Adler, Horney, Erikson)
Due Tues/Wed, Feb 20/21: Read pgs 573 - 576 + Handout (Trait and Temperament)
Due Thurs/Fri, Feb 22/23: Read pgs 576 - 584 + Handout (Learning/Socio-Cognitive)

Due Mon, Feb 26: Turn in Rorschach interview and Read pgs 564 - 567 + Handout (Humanists)
Due Tues/Wed, Feb 27/28: Read Case Study (Jaylene), catch up on all reading, and complete personality chart
Due Thurs/Fri, Mar 1/2: TEST - Personality and Read pgs 443 - 447 for after the test 

Due Mon, Mar 5:  Read pgs 447 - 455
Due Tues/Wed, Mar 6/7  Read pgs 478 - 481, 487 - 493
Due Thurs/Fri, Mar 8/9: Read pgs 503 - 516 

​Due Mon, Mar 12: Read pgs 516 - 526
Due Tues/Wed, Mar 13/14: Read pgs 173 - 176, 188 - 190, 195 - 196, 223 - 225
Due Thurs/Fri, Mar 15/16: Read pgs 177 - 188

Due Mon, Mar 19: Read pgs 194 - 195, 199 - 202 + Handout
Due Tues/Wed, Mar 20/21: TEST - Motiv/Emot/Developmt + Read 528 - 530, 673 - 679, 712 - 714  for after the test
Due Thurs/Fri, Mar 22/23: Read pgs 680 - 691

Due Mon/Tues, Mar 26/27:  Read pgs 691 - 705 
Due Wed/Thurs, Mar 28/29:  Read pgs 705 - 712, 715 - 718

Friday, March 30: Half day of School; End of 3rd quarter
March 31 - April 8: HAPPY SPRING BREAK!

Due Mon, April 9:  No assignment due
Due Tues/Wed, Apr 10/11: TEST - Social Psych + Read pgs 593 - 600, 637 - 640 
Due Thurs/Fri, Apr 12/13: Read pgs 601 - 608, 641 - 646, 660 - 662 + RESEARCH ASSIGNMENT DUE 

Due Mon, April 16:  Read pgs 611 - 621, 662 - 664
Due Tues/Wed, Apr 17/18: Read pgs 608 - 611, 646 - 650, 664 - 667 
Due Thurs/Fri, Apr 19/20: Read pgs 621 - 628, 657 - 658, box on 659, 661

Due Mon, April 23:  Read pgs 628 - 633, 667 - 669 + Handout
Due Tues/Wed, Apr 24/25: Read Handout and Case Studies 
Due Thurs/Fri, Apr 26/27: TEST - Abnormal Psych and Treatments

Mon, April 30: Review for Mock Test - Vocabulary list here
Tues/Wed May 1/2: MOCK AP TEST - 100 Multiple Choice Questions (2/3 of the test grade)
Thurs/Fri, May 3/4:MOCK AP TEST - 2 Free Response Questions (1/3 of the test grade)

MONDAY, MAY 7: AP PSYCHOLOGY TEST in the afternoon
Post-AP test activities - To Be Announced


Due Mon, Aug 28:  T/F Activity
Due Tues/Wed, Aug 29/30: Read Approaches in Psychology and take notes TO TURN IN at the beginning of class
​Due Thurs/Fri, Aug 31/Sept 1: Read pgs 1, 2, 6 - 11

Due Tues/Wed, Sept 5/6: Read pgs 21 - 28, 30 - 33
​Due Thurs/Fri, Sept 7/8: Read pgs 15 - 20, 38 - 40, + Handout (Ethics)

Due Mon, Sept 11: Read pgs 47 - 48, 55 - 58, 60 - 62
Due Tues/Wed, Sept 12/13: Read pgs 68 - 73, 75 - 79
Due Thurs/Fri, Sept 14/15: Read pgs 62 - 67, 73 - 75

Due Mon/Tues, Sept 18/19: Read Handout (Gender differences in brains)
Due Wed/Thurs, Sept 20/21: BRAIN PROJECT DUE - Be prepared to turn in parts I and II at the beginning of class.  
                                              We'll present our mnemonics, then take the Group Quiz

Due Mon, Sept 25: Read pgs 49 - 55+ Handout (Neurotransmitters)
Due Tues/Wed, Sept 26/27: 58 - 60 + Complete Endocrine Chart to be checked
Due Thurs/Fri, Sept 28/29: TEST - UNIT ONE (60 minutes) + Read pgs 229 - 234 for after the test

Due Mon, Oct 2: Read pgs 234 - 243
Due Tues/Wed, Oct 3/4: Read pgs 243 - 245, 263, 264 + Handout ("Do You See What They See?")
Due Thurs/Fri, Oct 5/6: Read pgs 264 - 268 + Handout ("Watch Out for the Visual Cliff!")

Due Mon/Tues, Oct 9/10: Read pgs 269 - 279 (Bring sunglasses to class for a demo)
Due Wed, Oct 11: PSAT/Senior Seminar -- short ODD classes in the PM
Due Thurs/Fri, Oct 12/13: Read pgs 279 - 281 + WEBQUEST DUE(Download)

Due Mon, Oct 16: Read pgs 245 - 252
Due Tues/Wed, Oct 17/18: Read pgs 252 - 263
Due Thurs/Fri, Oct 19/20: Complete Study Guide FRQ

Due Mon, Oct 23 (even)/Tues, Oct 24 (odd): TEST - Sens & Perc + Read pgs 282 - 285, 85 - 89 for after the test
Due Wed/Thurs, Oct 25/26: Watch YouTube clips (here and here) THEN read pgs 89 - 96
THURSDAY, OCT 26 - Last Day of First Quarter

Due Mon, Oct 30: Read pgs 97 - 103
Due Tues, Oct 31/ Wed, Nov 1: Read pgs 103 - 108 + Bring completed Sleep Log to class
         (5th period Sophomores - complete Prompt #7 and TED Talks (see Links tab) for Thurs; work on Sleep Log Asgnmt)
Due Thurs/Fri, Nov 2/3: Read pgs 112 - 121

Monday/Tuesday, Nov 6/7: STUDENT HOLIDAYS
Due Wed, Nov 8 (Monday Schedule): Sleep/Dream Assignments DUE at end of class + Read pgs 121 - 126, 108 - 112
​Due Thurs/Fri, Nov 9/10: Sleep Disorders and Drug Chart to be checked

Due Mon, Nov 13: Mouse Party to be checked + Read pgs 291 - 293 
Due Tues/Wed, Nov 14/15: TEST - St of Consciousness + Read pgs 294 - 296 for after the test
Due Thurs/Fri, Nov 16/17: Read pgs 296 - 303

Due Mon, Nov 20 (even)/Tues, Nov 21 (odd): Scientific American MIND article summaries (2) DUE; Read pgs 304 - 313
Wednesday through Friday, Nov 22 - 24: THANKSGIVING HOLIDAY

Due Mon, Nov 27: No reading due
Due Tues/Wed, Nov 28/29: Read pgs 313 - 323; Video Script due by end of class
Due Thurs, Nov 30/Fri, Dec 1: Film Video in class. Video Summary form due at end of class on Monday
Some helpful resources about filming and uploading your film are availableHERE (Thanks, Mr. Osborn.)

Due Mon, Dec 4:  "Prime Time" worksheet due at end of class (download HERE); Group Video due by 8:00 PM Monday evening
Upload your video to appropriate class folder in Google Drive -- click HERE.
Due Tues/Wed, Dec 5/6: Complete Review Exercises & front of Study Guide (NO separate test on Learning; info will be on Midterm)
Due Thurs/Fri, Dec 7/8: Complete back of Study Guide; Bring whole notebook to class for Midterm Review Activity

Due Mon, Dec 11: Bring whole notebook to class for Midterm Review Activity
Due Tues/Wed, Dec 12/13: Bring whole notebook to class for Midterm Review Activity

MIDTERM Vocab List - Download HERE
MIDTERM Review Game - Download HERE (Available at end of day, Wednesday, Dec 13)

Thurs, Dec 14
: Midterm Exam - periods 1 and 5
Fri, Dec 15: Midterm Exam - periods 2 and 6
Mon, Dec 18: Midterm Exam - periods 3 and 7
Tues, Dec 19: Midterm Exam - periods 4 and 8
Wednesday, Dec 20 through Tuesday, Jan 2: WINTER BREAK

Due Wed, Jan 3:  No reading due
Due Thurs/Fri, Jan 4/5: Read pgs 327 - 333

Due Mon, Jan 8: Read pgs 333 - 337
Due Tues/Wed, Jan 9/10: Read pgs 337 - 345
Due Thurs/Fri, Jan 11/12: Read pgs 345 - 352 

Monday, Jan 15: HOLIDAY
Due Tues/Wed, Jan 16/17: Read pgs 352 - 360; Extra Credit assignment due - Get Deborah Skinner Buzan articles here.
Due Thurs/Fri, Jan 18/19: Read pgs 360 - 365; Memory TH questions due and FRQ in class (25 minutes)
Friday, Jan 19: Last Day of First Semester


ByChristian Jarrett

These ten characters have all had a huge influence on psychology and their stories continue to intrigue each new generation of students. What’s particularly fascinating is that many of their stories continue to evolve – new evidence comes to light, or new technologies are brought to bear, changing how the cases are interpreted and understood. What many of these 10 also have in common is that they speak to some of the perennial debates in psychology, about personality and identity, nature and nurture, and the links between mind and body.

Phineas Gage
One day in 1848 in Central Vermont, Phineas Gage was tamping explosives into the ground to prepare the way for a new railway line when he had a terrible accident. The detonation went off prematurely, and his tamping iron shot into his face, through his brain, and out the top of his head. Remarkably Gage survived, although his friends and family reportedly felt he was changed so profoundly (becoming listless and aggressive) that “he was no longer Gage.” There the story used to rest – a classic example of frontal brain damage affecting personality. However, recent years have seen a drastic reevaluation of Gage’s story in light of new evidence. It’s now believed that he underwent significant rehabilitation and in fact began work as a horse carriage driver in Chile. A simulation of his injuries suggested much of his right frontal cortex was likely spared, and photographic evidence has been unearthed showing a post-accident dapper Gage. Not that you’ll find this revised account in many psychology textbooks: a recent analysis showed that few of them have kept up to date with the new evidence.

Find out more: Using brain imaging to reevaluate psychology’s three most famous cases
Neuroscience still haunted by Phineas Gage
Phineas Gage – Unravelling the Myth
Looking back: Blasts from the past
Coverage of Phineas Gage in the book Great Myths of the Brain

Henry Gustav Molaison (known for years as H.M. in the literature to protect his privacy), who died in 2008, developed severe amnesia at age 27 after undergoing brain surgery as a form of treatment for the epilepsy he’d suffered since childhood. He was subsequently the focus of study by over 100 psychologists and neuroscientists and he’s been mentioned in over 12,000 journal articles! Molaison’s surgery involved the removal of large parts of the hippocampus on both sides of his brain and the result was that he was almost entirely unable to store any new information in long-term memory (there were some exceptions – for example, after 1963 he was aware that a US president had been assassinated in Dallas). The extremity of Molaison’s deficits was a surprise to experts of the day because many of them believed that memory was distributed throughout the cerebral cortex. Today, Molaison’s legacy lives on: his brain was carefully sliced and preserved and turned into a 3D digital atlas and his life story is reportedly due to be turned into a feature film based on the book researcher Suzanne Corkin wrote about him: Permanent Present Tense, The Man With No Memory and What He Taught The World.

Find out more: Using brain imaging to reevaluate psychology’s three most famous cases
Henry Molaison: the amnesiac we’ll never forget
Understanding amnesia – Is it time to forget HM?

Leborgne’s brain is housed at
the Musée Dupuytren museum in Paris

Victor Leborgne (nickname “Tan”)
The fact that, in most people, language function is served predominantly by the left frontal cortex has today almost become common knowledge, at least among psych students. However, back in the early nineteenth century, the consensus view was that language function (like memory, see entry for H.M.) was distributed through the brain. An eighteenth century patient who helped change that was Victor Leborgne, a Frenchman who was nicknamed “Tan” because that was the only sound he could utter (besides the expletive phrase “sacre nom de Dieu”). In 1861, aged 51, Leborgne was referred to the renowned neurologist Paul Broca, but died soon after. Broca examined Leborgne’s brain and noticed a lesion in his left frontal lobe – a segment of tissue now known as Broca’s area. Given Leborgne’s impaired speech but intact comprehension, Broca concluded that this area of the brain was responsible for speech production and he set about persuading his peers of this fact – now recognised as a key moment in psychology’s history. For decades little was known about Leborgne, besides his important contribution to science. However, in a paper published in 2013, Cezary Domanski at Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Poland uncovered new biographical details, including the possibility that Leborgne muttered the word “Tan” because his birthplace of Moret, home to several tanneries.

Find out more: Glimpsed at last – the life of neuropsychology’s most important patient
Using brain imaging to reevaluate psychology’s three most famous cases

Wild Boy of Aveyron
The “Wild boy of Aveyron” – named Victor by the physician Jean-Marc Itard – was found emerging from Aveyron forest in South West France in 1800, aged 11 or 12, where’s it’s thought he had been living in the wild for several years. For psychologists and philosophers, Victor became a kind of “natural experiment” into the question of nature and nurture. How would he be affected by the lack of human input early in his life? Those who hoped Victor would support the notion of the “noble savage” uncorrupted by modern civilisation were largely disappointed: the boy was dirty and dishevelled, defecated where he stood and apparently motivated largely by hunger. Victor acquired celebrity status after he was transported to Paris and Itard began a mission to teach and socialise the “feral child”. This programme met with mixed success: Victor never learned to speak fluently, but he dressed, learned civil toilet habits, could write a few letters and acquired some very basic language comprehension. Autism expert Uta Frith believes Victor may have been abandoned because he was autistic, but she acknowledges we will never know the truth of his background. Victor’s story inspired the 2004 novel The Wild Boy and was dramatised in the 1970 French film The Wild Child.

Find out more: Case Study: The Wild Boy of Aveyron (BBC Radio 4 documentary).

Kim Peek
Nicknamed ‘Kim-puter’ by his friends, Peek who died in 2010 aged 58, was the inspiration for Dustin Hoffman’s autistic savant character in the multi-Oscar-winning film Rain Man. Before that movie, which was released in 1988, few people had heard of autism, so Peek via the film can be credited with helping to raise the profile of the condition. Arguably though, the film also helped spread the popular misconception that giftedness is a hallmark of autism (in one notable scene, Hoffman’s character deduces in an instant the precise number of cocktail sticks – 246 – that a waitress drops on the floor). Peek himself was actually a non-autistic savant, born with brain abnormalities including a malformed cerebellum and an absent corpus callosum (the massive bundle of tissue that usually connects the two hemispheres). His savant skills were astonishing and included calendar calculation, as well as an encyclopaedic knowledge of history, literature, classical music, US zip codes and travel routes. It was estimated that he read more than 12,000 books in his life time, all of them committed to flawless memory. Although outgoing and sociable, Peek had coordination problems and struggled with abstract or conceptual thinking.

Find out more: New York Times Obit for Kim Peek.
Autism – myth and reality
Calendar calculating savants with autism – how do they do it?
I Am a Calendar Calculator

Image: Wikipedia

Anna O.
“Anna O.” is the pseudonym for Bertha Pappenheim, a pioneering German Jewish feminist and social worker who died in 1936 aged 77. As Anna O. she is known as one of the first ever patients to undergo psychoanalysis and her case inspired much of Freud’s thinking on mental illness. Pappenheim first came to the attention of another psychoanalyst, Joseph Breuer, in 1880 when he was called to her house in Vienna where she was lying in bed, almost entirely paralysed. Her other symptoms include hallucinations, personality changes and rambling speech, but doctors could find no physical cause. For 18 months, Breuer visited her almost daily and talked to her about her thoughts and feelings, including her grief for her father, and the more she talked, the more her symptoms seemed to fade – this was apparently one of the first ever instances of psychoanalysis or “the talking cure”, although the degree of Breuer’s success has been disputed and some historians allege that Pappenheim did have an organic illness, such as epilepsy. Although Freud never met Pappenheim, he wrote about her case, including the notion that she had a hysterical pregnancy, although this too is disputed. The latter part of Pappenheim’s life in Germany post 1888 is as remarkable as her time as Anna O. She became a prolific writer and social pioneer, including authoring stories, plays, and translating seminal texts, and she founded social clubs for Jewish women, worked in orphanages and founded the German Federation of Jewish Women.

Find out more: Freud’s Anna O. Social work’s Bertha Pappenheim [pdf document]
A Dangerous Method is a feature film about another influential patient of psychoanalysis, Sabina Spielrein, who subsequently became a psychoanalyst herself.

Image: Wikipedia

Kitty Genovese
Sadly, it is not really Kitty Genovese the person who has become one of psychology’s classic case studies, but rather the terrible fate that befell her. In 1964 in New York, Genovese was returning home from her job as a bar maid when she was attacked and eventually murdered by Winston Mosely. What made this tragedy so influential to psychology was that it inspired research into what became known as the Bystander Phenomenon – the now well-established finding that our sense of individual responsibility is diluted by the presence of other people. According to folklore, 38 people watched Genovese’s demise yet not one of them did anything to help, apparently a terrible real life instance of the Bystander Effect. However, the story doesn’t end there because historians have since established the reality was much more complicated – at least two people did try to summon help, and actually there was only one witness the second and fatal attack. While the main principle of the Bystander Effect has stood the test of time, modern psychology’s understanding of the way it works has become a lot more nuanced. For example, there’s evidence that in some situations people are more likely to act when they’re part of a larger group, such as when they and the other group members all belong to the same social category (such as all being women) as the victim.

Find out more: The truth behind the story of Kitty Genovese and the bystander effect
Foundations of sand? The lure of academic myths in psychology
37 is a short film about the Genovese murder

Little Albert

“Little Albert” was the nickname that the pioneering behaviourist psychologist John Watson gave to an 11-month-old baby, in whom, with his colleague and future wife Rosalind Rayner, he deliberately attempted to instill certain fears through a process of conditioning. The research, which was of dubious scientific quality, was conducted in 1920 and has become notorious for being so unethical (such a procedure would never be given approval in modern university settings). Interest in Little Albert has reignited in recent years as an academic quarrel has erupted over his true identity. A group led by Hall Beck at Appalachian University announced in 2011 that they thought Little Albert was actually Douglas Merritte, the son of a wet nurse at John Hopkins University where Watson and Rayner were based. According to this sad account, Little Albert was neurologically impaired, compounding the unethical nature of the Watson/Rayner research, and he died aged six of  hydrocephalus (fluid on the brain). However, this account was challenged by a different group of scholars led by Russell Powell at MacEwan University in 2014. They established that Little Albert was more likely William A Barger (recorded in his medical file as Albert Barger), the son of a different wet nurse. Earlier this year, textbook writer Richard Griggs weighed up all the evidence and concluded that the Barger story is the more credible, which would mean that Little Albert in fact died 2007 aged 87.

Find out more: Little Albert – one of the most famous research participants in psychology’s history – but who was he?
Looking back: Finding Little Albert

Chris Sizemore
Chris Costner Sizemore is one of the most famous patients to be given the controversial diagnosis of multiple personality disorder, known today as dissociative identity disorder. Sizemore’s alter egos apparently included Eve White, Eve Black, Jane and many others. By some accounts, Sizemore expressed these personalities as a coping mechanism in the face of traumas she experienced in childhood, including seeing her mother badly injured and a man sawn in half at a lumber mill. In recent years, Sizemore has described how her alter egos have been combined into one united personality for many decades, but she still sees different aspects of her past as belonging to her different personalities. For example, she has stated that her husband was married to Eve White (not her), and that Eve White is the mother of her first daughter. Her story was turned into a movie in 1957 called The Three Faces of Eve (based on a book of the same name written by her psychiatrists). Joanne Woodward won the best actress Oscar for portraying Sizemore and her various personalities in this film. Sizemore published her autobiography in 1977 called I’m Eve. In 2009, she appeared on the BBC’s Hard Talk interview show.

Find out more: the Chris Costner Sizemore Papers at Duke University. 

David Reimer
One of the most famous patients in psychology, Reimer lost his penis in a botched circumcision operation when he was just 8 months old. His parents were subsequently advised by psychologist John Money to raise Reimer as a girl, “Brenda”, and for him to undergo further surgery and hormone treatment to assist his gender reassignment. Money initially described the experiment (no one had tried anything like this before) as a huge success that appeared to support his belief in the important role of socialisation, rather than innate factors, in children’s gender identity. In fact, the reassignment was seriously problematic and Reimer’s boyishness was never far beneath the surface. When he was aged 14, Reimer was told the truth about his past and set about reversing the gender reassignment process to become male again. He later campaigned against other children with genital injuries being gender reassigned in the way that he had been. His story was turned into the book As Nature Made Him, The Boy Who Was Raised As A Girl by John Colapinto, and he is the subject of two BBC Horizon documentaries. Tragically, Reimer took his own life in 2004, aged just 38.

Find out more: What were the real reasons behind David Reimer’s suicide?

main sources and further reading
The Rough Guide to Psychology
Great Myths of the Brain.
10 of The Most Counter-Intuitive Psychology Findings Ever Published
The 10 Most Controversial Psychology Studies Ever Published

Post written by Christian Jarrett (@psych_writer) for the BPS Research Digest.

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