Difference Between Case Study And Survey Method Ppt
Key Difference – Case Study vs Survey
When conducting research case studies and surveys are two research methods that are employed by researchers. Although both methods are used to gather information, there is a key difference between a case study and a survey. A case study refers to research in which an individual, group or a particular situation is studied. The duration of the study tends to be relatively long. A survey refers to research where data is gathered from an entire population or a very large sample in order to comprehend the opinions on a particular matter. The key difference between the two methods is that while case studies produce rich descriptive data, surveys do not. Instead, the data is collected from surveys are more statistically significant.
What is a Case Study?
A case study refers to an in-depth study in which an individual, group or a particular situation is studied. This is used in both in natural and social sciences. In the natural sciences, a case study can be used to validate a theory or even a hypothesis. In the social sciences, case studies are used extensively to study human behavior and comprehend various social aspects. For example, in psychology, case studies are conducted to comprehend the individual behavior. In such an instance, the researcher records the entire history of the individual so that it enables him to identify various patterns of behavior. One of the classic examples for a case study is Sigmund Freud’s study of Anna O.
When speaking of case studies, it must be highlighted that they usually produce rich descriptive data. However, case studies cannot be used to provide generalizations on an entire population since the sample of a case study is usually limited to a single individual or a few individuals. For a case study, various research techniques such as interviews, direct and participatory observation, and documents can be used.
What is a Survey?
A survey refers to research where data is gathered from an entire population or a very large sample in order to comprehend the opinions on a particular matter. In the modern society, surveys are often used in politics and marketing. For example, imagine a situation where an organization wishes to understand the opinions of consumers on their latest product. Naturally the organization would conduct a survey to comprehend the opinions of the consumer.
One of the most powerful research techniques used for surveys is the questionnaire. For this, the researcher creates a set of questions on the topic for which he will gather information from the participants. Unlike case studies, the data gathered from surveys are not very descriptive. Instead, they are statistically significant.
What is the difference between Case Study and Survey?
Definitions of Case Study and Survey:
Case Study: A case study refers to an in-depth study in which an individual, group, or a particular situation is studied.
Survey: A survey refers to research where data is gathered from an entire population or a very large sample in order to comprehend the opinions on a particular matter.
Characteristics of Case Study and Survey:
Case Study: Case studies are used in qualitative research.
Survey: Surveys are mostly used in quantitative research.
Case Study: Case studies produce rich in depth data.
Survey: Surveys produce numerical data.
Case Study: For a case study, a relatively small population is chosen. This can vary from a few individuals to groups.
Survey: For a survey, a large population can be used as the sample.
1. “Microscopy lab” by Idaho National Laboratory – Flickr: Microscopy lab. [CC BY 2.0] via Commons
2. Survey Research Books By User:Jtneill (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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Primary data is described as a data originally collected, in essence, the data gathered is afresh and for the first time. Surveys and Experiments are two important statistical techniques used in research and data collection. When the research type is experimental, experiments are considered as a major source of primary data. On the other end, surveys are performed when the research is descriptive in nature.
While surveys collected data, provided by the informants, experiments test various premises by trial and error method. This article attempts to shed light on the difference between survey and experiment, have a look.
Content: Survey Vs Experiment
- Comparison Chart
- Key Differences
|Basis for Comparison||Survey||Experiment|
|Meaning||Survey refers to a technique of gathering information regarding a variable under study, from the respondents of the population.||Experiment implies a scientific procedure wherein the factor under study is isolated to test hypothesis.|
|Used in||Descriptive Research||Experimental Research|
|Suitable for||Social and Behavioral sciences||Physical and natural sciences|
|Example of||Field research||Laboratory research|
|Data collection||Observation, interview, questionnaire, case study etc.||Through several readings of experiment.|
Definition of Survey
By the term survey, we mean a method of securing information relating to the variable under study from all or a specified number of respondents of the universe. It may be a sample survey or a census survey. This method relies on the questioning of the informants on a specific subject. Survey follows structured form of data collection, in which a formal questionnaire is prepared, and the questions are asked in a predefined order.
Informants are asked questions concerning their behaviour, attitude, motivation, demographic, lifestyle characteristics, etc. through observation, direct communication with them over telephone/mail or personal interview. Questions are asked verbally to the respondents, i.e. in writing or by way of computer. The answer of the respondents is obtained in the same form.
Definition of Experiment
The term experiment means a systematic and logical scientific procedure in which one or more independent variables under test are manipulated, and any change on one or more dependent variable is measured while controlling for the effect of the extraneous variable. Here extraneous variable is an independent variable which is not associated with the objective of study but may affect the response of test units.
In an experiment, the investigator attempts to observe the outcome of the experiment conducted by him intentionally, to test the hypothesis or to discover something or to demonstrate a known fact. An experiment aims at drawing conclusions concerning the factor on the study group and making inferences from sample to larger population of interest.
Key Differences Between Survey and Experiment
The differences between survey and experiment can be drawn clearly on the following grounds:
- A technique of gathering information regarding a variable under study, from the respondents of the population, is called survey. A scientific procedure wherein the factor under study is isolated to test hypothesis is called an experiment.
- Surveys are performed when the research is of descriptive nature, whereas in the case of experiments are conducted in experimental research.
- The survey samples are large as the response rate is low, especially when the survey is conducted through mailed questionnaire. On the other hand, samples required in the case of experiments is relatively small.
- Surveys are considered suitable for social and behavioural science. As against this, experiments are an important characteristic of physical and natural sciences.
- Field research refers to the research conducted outside the laboratory or workplace. Surveys are the best example of field research. On the contrary, Experiment is an example of laboratory research. A laboratory research is nothing but research carried on inside the room equipped with scientific tools and equipment.
- In surveys, the data collection methods employed can either be observation, interview, questionnaire, or case study. As opposed to experiment, the data is obtained through several readings of the experiment.
While survey studies the possible relationship between data and unknown variable, experiments determine the relationship. Further, Correlation analysis is vital in surveys, as in social and business surveys, the interest of the researcher rests in understanding and controlling relationships between variables. Unlike experiments, where casual analysis is significant.
Filed Under: General